Isotope Switching | Immunoglobulin Class Switching | Abzena

Ig Class and Isotype Switching

For many therapeutic indications, having the right antibody class and format is as important as having the right antigen specificity. Abzena can take your parental antibody and perform class or isotype switching to investigate the effect of different Fc moiety on the activity of the antibody. This process usually involves taking the variable domains from antibody classes other than IgG (i.e. IgM, IgA, IgD or IgE) and linking to the desired IgG isotype.

Antibodies can be configured with any additional constant region mutations that you require to tailor the properties of the antibody to your precise specification. Typical types of antibody classes and their benefits are shown below.

antibody1

IgG1

IgG1 is the most commonly used immunoglobulin isotype in therapeutic monoclonal antibody development due to its intrinsically high stability and its natural ability to elicit complement activation (CDC) and effector-mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)

antibody1

IgG2

IgG2 can naturally dimerise to become tetravalent, which may play a role in its natural functionality. IgG2 has evolved to have reduced ADCC and CDC functions compared to IgG1 and has been used in a small number of licensed therapeutic antibodies where effector functions are not required.

antibody3

IgG3

IgG3 has similar properties to IgG1 with regard to ADCC and CDC, although it has a reduced half-life compared to the other IgG isotypes.

antibody4

IgG4

IgG4 has very weak ADCC activity (comparable to IgG2) and virtually no CDC activity, which makes it the preferred choice for developing monoclonal antibodies for indications where only blocking of molecular interactions is required. IgG4 can be configured with, or without, the hinge stabilising S241P (Kabat numbering) mutation.

Antibodies can be configured with any additional constant region mutations that you require to tailor the properties of the antibody to your precise specification.

shutterstock_143646112Working with Abzena

Abzena’s services are tailored for each project to ensure that the objectives are met or exceeded. Experienced project teams are assigned to each study focusing on progressing projects through to results in the minimum amount of time. Our clients widely regard us as professional and attentive partners who deliver quality results.

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